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Medicine

Top 9 best advances in the field of cardiovascular diseases

Top 9 best advances in the field of cardiovascular diseases

Experts of the American Heart Association AHA have named the best advances in the field of cardiovascular diseases for 2023. When choosing the most successful cases, the researchers were guided by the main criterion - effectiveness in preventing, treating, and controlling heart disease. What scientific achievements have been noted in 2023 and why is progress in cardiovascular disease closely related to healthcare in general?

How do advances in CVD affect healthcare?

High blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity are three of the most common problems in modern society that most often cause cardiovascular disease. It is no secret that heart disease is the leading cause of death in the world. That is why scientific developments in the field of CVD play a significant role in the healthcare sector.

"Every year, we review research that expands our understanding of how to prevent, treat and control heart disease and stroke," said Marielle Jessup, MD, AHA Chief Scientific and Medical Officer.

"New developments help people, healthcare professionals, and politicians make more informed healthcare decisions," the researcher assured.

According to AHA experts, the most significant achievements in the field of CVD in 2023 were the following developments.

  • The new antihypertensive drug zilebeziran, which is called a "hypertension vaccine". According to research, the injectable RNAi drug effectively reduces blood pressure in adults with mild to moderate hypertension for up to 6 months.

"Our study shows that quarterly or biannual doses of zilebeziran can effectively and safely lower blood pressure in patients with uncontrolled hypertension," emphasizes George Bakris, MD, of the University of Chicago Medical School.

Experts consider an injectable drug that provides long-term blood pressure reduction to be a real breakthrough in 2023.

  • Benefits of thrombectomy in severe stroke cases

Endovascular thrombectomy is a standard treatment for small or medium-sized strokes. However, until recently, it was unclear whether the invasive method would benefit people with larger and more severe strokes. Studies have shown that early endovascular thrombectomy after a massive cerebral infarction is superior to standard medical care. According to scientists, those who underwent endovascular thrombectomy had less disability. In addition, patients were more functionally independent within 3 months after treatment.

  • Advances in imaging for stent placement

Four studies in 2023 highlighted advances in imaging for stent placement in patients undergoing coronary intervention. The data from all studies confirmed that stent placement in complex coronary artery lesions under the control of GCCT is superior to angiography-guided intervention.

  • Anticoagulant therapy in stroke with atrial fibrillation

For patients with acute ischemic stroke with atrial fibrillation, European guidelines suggest starting oral anticoagulant therapy 3 days after a mild stroke, 6 days after a moderate stroke, and 12 days after a severe stroke. American guidelines suggest waiting on therapy for more than 2 weeks.

One recent study has shown that earlier therapy after a mild, moderate, or severe stroke is not associated with an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage and reduces ischemia.

  • New drugs for diabetes in obesity

Numerous studies have shown that HGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists can reduce cardiovascular risks in patients with diabetes. Clinical evidence shows that these drugs can improve cardiovascular health in obese patients without diabetes. Several new studies have shown that semaglutide is superior to placebo in reducing cardiovascular disease-related mortality in overweight people.

  • Determining the role of social factors in cardiovascular disease mortality

In the annual AHA list, experts note the role of social factors in cardiovascular disease mortality. American researchers have found that the mortality rate from CVD is higher in rural counties and in counties with a high percentage of black people. Average income, nutrition, and housing status predicted higher mortality from heart disease.

  • A healthy diet reduces the risk of premature death

The results of a large cohort study in 2023 showed that a healthy diet can help prevent, control, and treat chronic diseases. After analyzing data from more than 75,000 women and 44,000 men over 36 years, the researchers concluded that those who followed a healthy diet had a lower risk of mortality.

  • Cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic syndrome

Citing the overlap between heart disease, kidney disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity, the AHA has officially defined cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic syndrome for the first time. Experts also presented the first PREVENT risk calculator, which combines cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic health indicators to assess future cardiovascular disease risk.

  • Endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease

New research supports an endovascular approach instead of vein bypass surgery to treat chronic ischemia that threatens the extremities. The intervention is performed under the control of radiation imaging. Studies have shown that patients who underwent venous bypass surgery for the first time were more likely to require major amputation or die during follow-up than those who received endovascular therapy.